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Culture and Tourism

On Sports Tourism And Others

Since the late 1980s, sports tourism has become increasingly popular. Events such as rugby, Olympics, the Commonwealth Games, Asian Games and football World Cup have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights, hotels and excursions. The focus on sports and spreading knowledge on the subject, especially more so recently, led to the increase in the sports tourism. Most notably, the international event such as the Olympics caused a shift in focus in the audience who now realize the variety of sports that exist in the world. In the United States, one of the most popular sports that usually is focused on was football. This popularity was increased through major events like the World Cup. In Asian countries the numerous football events also increased the popularity of football. But it was the Olympics that brought together the different sports that led to the increase in sports tourism. The drastic interest increase in sports in general and not just one sport caught the attention of travel companies who then began to sell flight tickets in packages. Due to the low number of people who actually purchase these packages than predicted, the cost of these packages plummeted initially. As the number start to rise slightly, the packages increased to regain the lost profits. With the certain economic state, the number of purchases decreased once again. The fluctuation in the number of packages sold was solely dependent on the economic situation. Therefore, most travel companies were forced to set aside the plan to execute the marketing of any new package features. Latest Trends As a result of the late-2000s recession, international arrivals suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008. Growth from 2007 to 2008 was only 3.7 per cent during the first eight months of 2008. This slowdown on international tourism demand was also reflected in the air transport industry, with a negative growth in September 2008 and a 3.3 per cent growth in passenger traffic through September. The hotel industry also reported a slowdown, with room occupancy declining. In 2009, worldwide tourism arrivals decreased by 3.8 per cent. By the first quarter of 2009, real travel demand in the United States had fallen six per cent over six quarters. While this is considerably milder than what occurred after the 9/11 attacks, the decline was at twice the rate as real GDP has fallen. However, evidence suggests that tourism as a global phenomenon shows no signs of substantially abating in the long term. It has been suggested that travel is necessary to maintain relationships as social life is increasingly networked and conducted at a distance. For many people, vacations and travel are increasingly being viewed as a necessity rather than a luxury, and this is reflected in tourist numbers recovering some 6.6 per cent globally over 2009, with growth up to eight per cent in emerging economies. Winter Tourism It was, however, only in the 1970s when winter tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts. Even in winter, up to one third of all guests (depending on the location), consisted of non-skiers. .Mass Tourism: Mass tourism developed with improvements in transport, which allowed many people to travel quickly to places of leisure interest so that more people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time. Niche Tourism: This refers to the numerous specialty forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of these terms have come into common use by the tourism industry and academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage. Sustainable Tourism: Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetics needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support system. Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio-cultural carrying capacities, and includes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning. It also involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic and social impacts of 'mass tourism'. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an 'ecological approach' to consider both 'plants' and 'people' when implementing the sustainable tourism development process. This is in contrast to the 'boosterism' and 'economic' approaches to tourism planning, neither of which consider the detrimental ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination. Ecotourism Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strive to be low-impact and (often) small-scale. It helps to educate the traveller; provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights. Take only memories and leave only footprints is a very common slogan in protected areas. Tourist destinations are shifting to low carbon emissions following the trend of visitors more focused in being environmentally responsible adopting a sustainable behaviour. Pro-poor Tourism Pro-poor tourism, which seeks to help the poorest people in developing countries, has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development; the issue has been addressed through small-scale projects in local communities and through attempts by Ministries of Tourism to attract large numbers of tourists. Research by the Overseas Development Institute suggests that neither is the best way to encourage tourists' money to reach the poorest as only 25 per cent or less (far less in some cases) ever reaches the poor; successful examples of money reaching the poor include mountain-climbing in Tanzania and cultural tourism in Luang Prabang, Laos. Recession Tourism Recession tourism is a travel trend which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Recession, tourism is defined by low-cost and high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession, thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world job market, suggesting that travellers are elongating trips where their money travels further. This concept is not widely used in tourism research. It is related to the short-lived phenomenon that is more widely known as staycation. Medical Tourism When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe, Cuba and Canada where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), travelling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical tourism.

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